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防火阻燃测试

建筑材料及构件防火测试

建筑材料的阻燃要求根据其在不同的使用场所有特定的规范,例如公共场所,高层建筑等场所相应的建材阻燃要求会较高。因此,对建材本身的阻燃性能进行了解和掌握是每个生产商/经销商/消费者都必须具备的技术信息,它能帮助我们在选购/使用建材时提供有效的指导意见。同时,各国/地区对于建筑的阻燃测试都配套有强制性的标准方法。

欧盟为了更加严格的规范建筑产品CE认证,自201371日起,欧盟颁布的建筑产品法规Construction Product Regulation No.305/2011/EU-CPR(简称CPR法规)将全面取代原来的建筑产品CE认证指令(Construction product directive 89/106/EEC-CPD(简称CPD指令),进入强制实施阶段。其中防火性能是CE认证里面最关注的性能指标之一,对应的测试标准为EN 13501阻燃分级系列标准。

美国的NFPA 101生命安全规范,该规范旨在规定必要建造、保护和居住使用功能,以最大程度减小火灾影响对生命造成的危险,包括火灾中产生的烟,热,有毒气体。引用的测试方法包括ASTM E84ASTM E 136ASTM E 119等,对不同类型的建筑场所提出了相应的阻燃要求。

中国的建材使用主要遵照1984年颁布实施的“中华人民共和国消防条例”。在实际应用中,材料的性能要求及应用范围还应依据具体的相关法律法规,如:建筑设计防火规范(GB 16-87),高层民用建筑设计防火规范(GB 50045-95),建筑内部装修设计防火规范(GB 50222-95)等。为了评估建材的阻燃性能,中国国家质量技术监督局制定了“建筑材料及制品燃烧性能分级”(GB8624-2006)(GB8624-20012)标准。该标准对建材的阻燃性能作了明确分类,并详细表述了建材相应的测试方法及技术参数是否达到相应的阻燃等级。

 

建材防火测试产品范围

地板,墙板,天花,保温材料,石膏板,人造石,水泥纤维板,壁纸,木塑,硅酸钙板,隔音材料,玻璃钢,竹木制品,建筑涂料,门窗,铝塑板,蜂窝板,建筑玻璃,装饰织物,彩钢板,建筑发泡材料,胶凝材料和胶粘剂等

防火测试项目:

防火评级,可燃性,难燃性,不燃性,燃烧释放热量,着火性,氧指数,毒性指数,产烟量,燃烧滴落物,烟密度等。

 

建材阻燃测试标准: 

EN 13501-1:2007FIRE CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS AND BUILDING ELEMENTS. CLASSIFICATION USING TEST DATA FROM REACTION TO FIRE TESTS 建材阻燃分级标准

引用的测试方法:

EN ISO 1182建筑制品燃烧性能试验—不燃性试验(类似GB/T 5464)

EN ISO 9239-1铺地材料燃烧性能测定—辐射热源法院(类似GB/T 11785)

EN ISO 1716 建筑材料燃烧热值试验方法(类似GB/T 14402)

EN ISO 13823建筑材料或制品的单体燃烧试验(SBI)(类似GB/T 20284)

EN ISO 11925-2 建筑材料可燃性测试,第二部分: 单一火源测试. (类似GB/T 11785)

NF P 92-507:2004 Fire safety-building-Interior fitting materials-classification according to their reaction to fire 建筑内饰材料对火反应分级

M0~M4对应的测试方法包括:

NF P 92-501, Fire safety Building Testing how materials react to fire Radiation test applicable to materials that are or have been made rigid (materials with bonded claddings) of any thickness and to flexible materials more than 5 mm thick.

NF P 92-503, Fire safety Building Testing how materials react to fire Electric burner test applicable to flexible materials.

NF P 92-504, Fire safety Building Testing how materials react to fire Persistence test and test measuring flame propagation speed.

NF P 92-505, Fire safety Building Testing how materials react to fire Test applicable to fusible materials: drip test.

NF P 92-506, Building Testing how materials react to fire Panel-heater test for floor coverings.

EN ISO 1716 Testing how building products react to fire Determining combustion heat

GB 8624-2006 建筑材料及制品燃烧性能分级/Classification for burning behavior of building materials and products

GB/T 20285-2006 材料产烟毒性危险分级/Toxic classification of fire effluents hazard for materials

BS 476-6:1989+A1:2009 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method of test for fire propagation for products 建筑制品火焰增长测试方法

BS 476-4:1970(AMD 1983) Fire tests in building materials and structures Part 4: Non-combustibility test for materials 不燃性测试

BS 476-5:1979 Fire tests in building materials and structures Part 5: method of test for ignitability 点燃性测试

DIN 4102 - Part 1, B1 (1998), Reaction to fire tests - Ignitability of building products subjected to direct impingement of flame. 建筑材料对火反应

ASTM E 84-15 Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials 建筑材料表面燃烧特性测定

GB 50222-2001 建筑内部装修防火技术规范/Code for fire prevention in design of interior decoration of buildings

GB 9978-1:2008 建筑构件耐火试验(ISO 834-1:1999 MOD)/Fire-resisitance tests - Elements of building construction Part 1: general requirements

BS 476-20/22:1987 Fire tests on building materials and structures Method for determination of the fire resistance 建筑构件耐火试验

ASTM D 2843:1999(2004)e1 Standard Test Method for Density of Smoke from the Burning or Decomposition of plastics 塑料烟密度

ISO 5660-1:2002 Reaction-to-fire tests - Heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate - Part 1: Heat release rate (cone calorimeter method) 热释放速率-锥形量热仪

ASTM E 648-2009a Standard Test Method for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor-Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source1 铺地材料-辐射热源法

ASTM D3675-2009 Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability of Flexible Cellular Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source

ISO 5659-2:2006 Plastics- Smoke generation Part 2: Determination of optical density by a single-chamber test塑料烟密度

AS 1530.1-1994 Methods for fire tests on building materials components and structures Part 1: Combustibility test for materials

ASTM E119 - 12 Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials 建筑构件耐火试验

BS 6307:1982 Method for Determination of the effects of a small source of ignition on textile floor coverings (Methenamine table)小火源对铺地织物影响的测定方法(乌洛托品片试验)

BS 4790:1987 Method for determination of the effects of a small source of ignition on textile floor coverings (hot metal nut method)小火源对铺地织物影响的测定方法(热金属螺母法)

16 CFR 1630 (FF 1-70) Standard for the surface flammability of carpets and rugs (ASTM D 2859-04)地毯和垫子表面燃烧性能标准

16 CFR 1631 (FF 1-70) Standard for the surface flammability of small carpets and rugs小地毯和垫子的表面燃烧性能标准

SO 6925:1982 Textile floor coverings - Burning behaviour-Tablet test at ambient temperature (Methenamine table)铺地织物.抗燃性.室温下的乌洛托品片试验

GB/T 11049-2008 地毯燃烧性能-室温片剂试验方法/Burning behaviour of Carpet - Table test at ambient temperature

GB/T 14768-1993 地毯燃烧性能45度试验方法及评定/Carpet burning behaviour-Test method at 45 and assessment

SOR 91-264 Hazardous Products (Carpets) Regulations (Method F-04:2004 TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATING TEXTILE FLOOR COVERINGS FOR FLAME RESISTANCE)加拿大危险产品(地毯)法规(测试方法F-04:2004 纺织品铺地材料阻燃测试)

CNS14705-A3386-2008 Method of test for heat release rate for building materials - cone calorimeter method 建筑材料燃烧热释放率试验法-圆锥量热仪法


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